Alzheimer’s Disease: Have We Been Focusing on the Wrong Proteins?

Ryan Gotesman

Abstract


NA

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sabuncu MR, Fischl B. The dynamics of cortical and hippocampal atrophy in alzheimers disease. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(8):1040–8.

Querfurth HW, Laferla FM. Alzheimer’s Disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(4):329–44.

Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Ziegler-Graham K, Arrighi HM. Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s Dement. 2007;3(3):186–91.

Cole SL, Vassar R. The Alzheimer’s disease Beta-secretase enzyme, BACE1. Mol Neurodegener [Internet]. 2007;2(1):22. Available from: http://molecularneurodegeneration.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1750-1326-2-22

Ahmed M, Davis J, Aucoin D, Sato T, Ahuja S, Aimoto S, et al. Structural conversion of neurotoxic amyloid-β(1-42) oligmers to fibrils. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17(5):561–7.

Seino Y, Kawarabayashi T, Wakasaya Y, Watanabe M, Takamura A, Yamamoto-Watanabe Y, et al. Amyloid β accelerates phosphorylation of tau and neurofibrillary tangle formation in an amyloid precursor protein and tau double-transgenic mouse model. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88(16):3547–54.

Wang Y, Mandelkow E. Tau in physiology and pathology. Nat Rev Neurosci [Internet]. Nature Publishing Group; 2015;17(1):22–35. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2015.1

Holmes C, Boche D, Wilkinson D, Yadegarfar G, Hopkins V, Bayer A, et al. Long-term Effects of Aβ42 Immunisation in Alzheimer’s disease: Follow-up of a Randomised, Placebo-controlled Phase I Trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9634):216–23.

Ostrowitzki S, Deptula D, Thurfjell L, Barkhof F, Bohrmann B, Brooks DJ, et al. Mechanism of Amyloid Removal in Patients With Alzheimer Disease Treated With Gantenerumab. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(2):198–207.

Doody RS, Raman R, Farlow M, Iwatsubo T, Vellas B, Joffe S, et al. A phase 3 trial of semagacestat for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetes Care. 2013;369(4):341–50.

Rentz DM, Locascio JJ, Becker JA, Moran EK, Eng E, Buckner RL, et al. Cognition, reserve, and amyloid deposition in normal aging. Ann Neurol. 2010;67(3):353–64.

Tariot PN. Chronic Divalproex Sodium to Attenuate Agitation and Clinical Progression of Alzheimer Disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry [Internet]. 2011;68(8):853. Available from: http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.72

Parkhurst CN, Yang G, Ninan I, Savas JN, Yates JR, Lafaille JJ, et al. Neuroprotective Effects of Lithium: Implications for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Neurodegenerative Disorders. ACS Chem Neurosci [Internet]. 2014;5(7):443–50. Available from: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cn5000309nhttp://www.cell.com/article/S0092867413014815/fulltext

Evans M, Schumm-Draeger PM, Vora J, King AB. A review of modern insulin analogue pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in type 2 diabetes: Improvements and limitations. Diabetes, Obes Metab. 2011;13(8):677–84.

Roper NA, Bilous RW, Kelly WF, Unwin NC, Connolly VM. Excess mortality in a population with diabetes and the impact of material deprivation: longitudinal, population based study. BMJ. 2001;322(7299):1389–93.

Fong DS, Aiello LP, Ferris FL 3rd, Klein R. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care [Internet]. 2004;27(10):2540–53. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&amp

Kuusisto J, Koivisto K, Mykkänen L, Helkala E, Vanhanen M, Hänninen T, et al. Association between features of the insulin resistance syndrome and Alzheimer ’ s disease independently of apolipoprotein E4 phenotype : cross sectional population based study. BMJ. 1997;315(October):1045–9.

Ishii K. PET approaches for diagnosis of dementia. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol [Internet]. 2014;35(11):2030–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23945233

Ott A, Stolk RP, van Harskamp F, Pols HAP, Hofman A, Breteler MMB. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of dementia: The Rotterdam Study. Neurology. 2011;53(9):1937–97.

Xu WL, von Strauss E, Qiu CX, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. Uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based cohort study. Diabetologia [Internet]. 2009;52(6):1031–9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19280172

Grünblatt E, Salkovic-Petrisic M, Osmanovic J, Riederer P, Hoyer S. Brain insulin system dysfunction in streptozotocin intracerebroventricularly treated rats generates hyperphosphorylated tau protein. J Neurochem. 2007;101(3):757–70.

Monte SM De. Contributions of Brain Insulin Resistance and Deficiency in Amyloid-Related Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer ’ s Disease. 2012;72(1):49–66.

Devi L, Alldred MJ, Ginsberg SD, Ohno M. Mechanisms underlying insulin deficiency-induced acceleration of β-amyloidosis in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):1–8.

Dandona P, Mohamed I, Ghanim H, Sia CL, Dhindsa S, Dandona S, et al. Insulin suppresses the expression of amyloid precursor protein, presenilins, and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab [Internet]. 2011;96(6):1783–8. Available from: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3100748&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Gasparini L, Gouras GK, Wang R, Gross RS, Beal MF, Greengard P, et al. Stimulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein trafficking by insulin reduces intraneuronal beta-amyloid and requires mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. J Neurosci. 2001;21(8):2561–70.

Li B, Ryder J, Su Y, Moore SA, Liu F, Solenberg P, et al. Overexpression of GSK3BS9A resulted in tau hyperphosphorylation and morphology reminiscent of pretangle-like neurons in the brain of PDGSK3B transgenic mice. Transgenic Res. 2004;13:385–96.

Cohen P, Goedert M. GSK3 inhibitors: development and therapeutic potential. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004;3(6):479–87.

Dajani R, Fraser E, Roe SM, Young N, Good V, Dale TC, et al. Crystal structure of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta: structural basis for phosphate-primed substrate specificity and autoinhibition. Cell. 2001;105(6):721–32.

Reger MA, Watson GS, Green PS, Wilkinson CW, Baker LD, Cholerton B, et al. Intranasal insulin improves cognition and modulates beta-amyloid in early AD. Neurology [Internet]. 2008;70(6):440–8. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17942819

Craft S. Intranasal Insulin Therapy for Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment. Arch Neurol [Internet]. 2012;69(1):29. Available from: http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/archneurol.2011.233

Hsu CC, Wahlqvist ML, Lee MS, Tsai HN. Incidence of dementia is increased in type 2 diabetes and reduced by the use of sulfonylureas and metformin. J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2011;24(3):485–93.

Imfeld P, Bodmer M, Jick SS, Meier CR. Metformin, Other Antidiabetic Drugs, and Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. J Am Geriatr Soc [Internet]. 2012;60(5):916–21. Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2012.03916.x


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Catalyst: Facets of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences