NEXUS: The Canadian Student Journal of Anthropology <table border="0"><tbody><tr><td style="vertical-align: top;"><p align="justify"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nexus is a graduate student-run publication from the Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. For nearly thirty years Nexus has provided a forum for quality four-field student work in anthropology from Canadian and international colleges and universities. Nexus attempts to present a cross section of current student work from any area of anthropology, and to advance scholarship through anonymous peer review. We believe that each sub-field interacts and informs the others and actively encourage submissions from any area of the discipline of anthropology. Submissions consist of original ongoing research and/or reviews of current anthropological issues. Critical reviews of current publications of anthropological interest are also included. As an online journal, Nexus is not constrained to physical printing limitations and encourages the use of technology and multi-media projects that may not be suited for traditional print materials. GIS, 3D modeling and audio/video media files are welcomed.</span></p></td><td><img src="/public/site/images/zbatist/nexus_hand_bw_315px.gif" alt="" /><p> </p></td></tr></tbody></table> en-US (Laura Lockau) (Zack Batist) Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Introduction: Infectious Diseases as Agents of Change This introduction outlines the focus of this special issue of NEXUS on the anthropology of infectious disease, and details the themes explored by each author. Laura Lockau ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Dec 2017 09:56:07 -0500 Humanitarian aid policy changes following the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti <p>The current cholera outbreak in Haiti arose as a result of inadequate humanitarian aid management by the United Nations following the 2010 earthquake in the country. Nepalese peacekeepers spread the water-borne disease through improper sanitation and waste disposal, resulting in re-emergence of the infection after 150 years. In 2016, the United Nations formally apologized for its role in the spread of the cholera epidemic that has killed more than nine thousand Haitians to date. Though many studies discuss the origin of the epidemic, there is a lack of comparison between initial response practices and current practices. Therefore, it is difficult to understand how disaster relief has evolved as a result of the Haiti epidemic. This paper argues that the training of humanitarian aid workers to avoid spreading infectious diseases like cholera in areas receiving disaster relief has not sufficiently improved. Specifically, this paper will analyze what recommendations were put forth following the 2010 Haitian earthquake and to what extent those recommendations have been implemented. By comparing past and current humanitarian aid practices in areas requiring disaster relief, this paper will outline the ways in which humanitarian practices need to change to prevent the spread of infections from emergency workers.</p><p> </p> Gagandeep Saini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Dec 2017 09:56:07 -0500 Reframing ABC prevention: the value of ethnographic research in creating culturally relevant HIV programs in Belize <p>Since its emergence in 1983, public health professionals have been working to effectively prevent the transmission of HIV. The ABC method or prevention, referring to promotion of abstinence, condoms and being faithful, has been employed extensively throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Contrastingly, the Belizean epidemic has received very little attention from ABC researchers. Although some research exists looking into the determinants of sexual HIV transmission in Belize, very little is understood about the cultural norms that perpetuate these factors. In order to make recommendations for the efficient implementation of ABC programs in Belize, case studies from Botswana, Zaire and Uganda will be used to review past experiences of ABC in Africa, and identify the cultural challenges faced in their implementation. Case studies found that programs that relied heavily on abstinence and condom promotion did not work well in these contexts due to opposing views of sexuality, while balanced programs that emphasized being faithful were more successful within these cultures. Ethnographic research is needed to fill knowledge gaps regarding Belizean sexuality. Namely, future research should seek to understand the male view of sexuality in particular, as well as differences in generational views of sex. Public health workers should also aim to create programs that engage the community in order to build trust, as well as understand the role of community leaders and celebrities in influencing local views of sex. These insights provide future researchers a starting point for building effective ABC programs that work within the given culture rather than against it.</p> Erynn Monette ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Dec 2017 09:56:08 -0500 Tuberculosis in South Africa: An Analysis of Socio-Economic Factors <p>Tuberculosis has historically thrived in some of the most impoverished and marginalized populations; however, research into why lower socio-economic populations are at a higher risk of contracting diseases remains to be a topic lacking exploration. This is becoming a more prevalent issue as multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively-drug resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) are on the rise in individuals living in poverty. The main research question that will be addressed in this paper is: How do socio-economic inequalities play a role in rising incidence rates of Tuberculosis in South Africa, and what are the future challenges in dealing with MDR-TB and XDR-TB? South Africa is a particularly important country of focus because of the racial inequity that has resulted in economic disparity, and a large percentage of the population living below the poverty line. Reviews of existing literature on Tuberculosis and correlations to poverty will be critically analyzed and applied, as well as the use of government documents, including Statistics South Africa, and the World Health Organization. A cross-cultural comparison of Canada and South Africa will be included to highlight the long-term effects of marginalization societal stratification. The health care policies dealing with treatment will also be discussed, with a specific focus on social epidemiology. This paper will argue that long-term racial inequalities in South Africa has result in economic disparity, through which Black Africans and people of Colour are more susceptible to contracting TB, MDR-TB, and insufficient health resources to support them. </p> Rachel Lynn Warren ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Dec 2017 09:56:08 -0500 Income Status and Education as Predictors of HIV Transmission in South Africa <p>The global Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic targets various populations around the world, and South Africa is one of a number of countries where prevalence rates of the virus continue to increase despite the introduction of a viable treatment option. Previously investigated implications of HIV in South Africa are primarily related to its effects on the health-care sector of the country. However, complex socioeconomic processes are relevant to the discussion of HIV-related risk factors and consequences affecting individuals and households within South Africa. A large body of literature covers many socioeconomic perspectives on HIV, including the effect of socioeconomic status on HIV infection. While the roles of income status and education as risk factors for HIV infection have been explored extensively in a South African context, the connection between this and consequent adverse impacts on these factors as a result of HIV infection has not been clearly identified. This paper aims to address the gap in the literature regarding how specific socioeconomic factors act as risk factors for HIV contraction, but also how the same factors are affected as an associated outcome in those infected with HIV. Specifically, this paper argues that income status and education act as risk factors for HIV through their effects on individual behaviour, while also being adversely impacted due to the occurrence of infection. These impacts on income status and education contribute to South Africa’s inability to stop perpetuating the cycle of HIV prevalence.            </p> Maham Yousufzai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 10 Dec 2017 15:55:41 -0500