Black Hole Thermodynamics and Hawking Radiation


  • Muhammad Amjad McMaster University Undergraduate Student
  • Joey Hofmann



Improvements in detection technology has enabled researchers to discover interstellar phenomena at an exponential rate; the most enticing of such marvels are black holes. Development of black hole thermodynamics have yielded promising interdisciplinary results. This paper will explore the fundamental concepts pertaining to black holes, and a brief outline of the scientific contributions made by notable theorists in their respective fields. These concepts will be followed by an in-depth discussion concerning the fundamental attributes and characteristics of black holes. One concept that will be thoroughly discussed is black hole radiation, a theory developed heavily by physicist Stephen Hawking, which was predicated on research concerning the anatomy and effects of rotating black holes in the universe. Derivations of formulae relevant to Hawking radiation, black hole entropy, and classical black hole dynamics will be done, as these are imperative to the elucidation of such sophisticated concepts. Furthermore, these formulae will be applied to pre-existing interstellar phenomena in order to understand the significance of the theoretical findings. Ultimately, mathematical models will be put to the test using real black holes. A model will also be generated in a Python environment to visually exemplify Hawking radiation for a Schwarzschild black hole. Developing a cohesive understanding of the thermodynamic concepts related to black holes will prove fruitful in the application of scientific knowledge to an ever-changing world enticed by interstellar phenomena.

Author Biography

Muhammad Amjad, McMaster University Undergraduate Student

Integrated Science student at McMaster University.

Fascinated by mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, and scientific education.




How to Cite

Amjad, M., & Hofmann, J. (2022). Black Hole Thermodynamics and Hawking Radiation. Sciential - McMaster Undergraduate Science Journal, (8), 17–25.



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